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Social Determinant of Health Framework to Examine the Impactof COVID‑19 on Latino Health

Sebastian Acevedo1,2 · Sarah Malarkey2,3 · Humberto Baquerizo1 · Asia Lefebre2 · Joachim Sackey3 · Pamela Valera2,3

Abstract
Objectives Evaluated how COVID-19 impacted Latino health across social, economic, and emotional dimensions and differentiated whether adverse COVID-19-related effects persisted across respondents.
Methods In both English and Spanish, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the USA from June 2021 to April 2022. Chi-square tests, Z-tests, and T-tests were used to test for significant differences between Spanish- and English-speaking respondents. Multiple linear regressions were carried out to understand whether previously established determinants of health for Latinos accounted for greater COVID-19-related adversity across social, economic, and mental health dimensions. English as a primary language was significantly related to greater adverse emotional/mental health COVID-19 experiences after controlling for other social determinants of health factors (β = − 0.355, p < 0.001). Individuals who reported worrying about housing loss were significantly more likely to experience more adverse economic adversity due to COVID-19
(β = − 0.234, p < 0.001). Household income < $35,000 (β = 0.083, p < 0.05), having more than 5 people living in the same home (β = −0.102, p < 0.05), and work-related transportation barriers (β = − 0.114, p < 0.05) all increased the likelihood of household-related stressors occurring because of the pandemic. Conclusions The study highlights the heterogeneity in the Latino community and the key social, economic, and communitylevel factors most strongly correlated with adverse COVID-19-related outcomes.

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More Works

Pamela Valera, Sarah Malarkey, Madelyn Owens, Noah Sinangil, Sanjana Bhakta, and Tammy Chung Online First Publication, April 11, 2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000860

Impact Statement
The mixed methods study found a positive association between Mental Health First Aid training and an
increase in correctional officers attitudes regarding referring people who are incarcerated to mental health professionals. Mental Health First Aid training can be helpful for correctional officers to equip them with appropriate skills to identify mental health challenges and substance use in correctional settings. However, correctional officers also report that the systems currently in place to connect people struggling with mental illness must be revamped.

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Daina Potter1 and Pamela Valera1

Abstract
The digestive health of African American/Black male immigrants in the United States has not been previously studied. Much of what is known about gastrointestinal (GI) concerns in this population is based on studies conducted on the overall Black American population. The purpose of this narrative study was to understand how African American/Black male immigrants with GI concerns navigated their GI condition. Fifteen African American/Black male immigrants from various cities in the United States participated in two remote focus groups to discover what motivates them to take control of their illness. Narrative analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most men, 47% (n = 7), did not have health insurance, and 67% (n = 10) reported their income was less than US$52,000. The themes identified were: (1) lack of knowledge of GI, (2) denial of initial diagnosis, (3) self-discipline, (4) positive provider interactions, (5) health as a priority, and (6) advice to other African American/Black male immigrants experiencing GI. A strengths-based approach is necessary for describing the health-seeking behaviors among African American/Black male immigrants.

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Pamela Valera, Sarah Malarkey, Madelyn Owens, Noah Sinangil, Sanjana Bhakta, and Tammy Chung Online First Publication, April 11, 2024. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ser0000860
Tajrian Amad3,4 · Pamela Valera1,4,5 · Joachim Sackey2,4 · Humberto Baquerizo4,5 · Sarah Malarkey3,4 · Sebastian Acevedo1,4,5

Abstract
Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic’s economic fallout has further exacerbated the health and well-being among Hispanics/Latinos, who maybe overrepresented in essential job industries and are vulnerable to experiencing food insecurity. This study explores whether the COVID-19 pandemic affected food security status differently among Latino/Hispanic essential and non-essential workers in the United States.

Methods The COVID-19 Latino health cross-sectional survey was conducted and administered in person and virtually. Bivariate analyses and chi-square tests were performed to investigate the association between essential worker status and changes in food security status during the COVID-19 pandemic. All reported p-values were two-sided; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results Of the 869 Hispanic/Latino respondents, 393 (45%) were deemed essential workers, and 476 (55%) were nonessential workers. About 22% of essential workers reported a household income of less than $20,000, whereas 19% of nonessential workers had an income above $100,000. Half (54%) of essential workers reported food insecurity. Over one-third (35%) of essential and 22% of non-essential workers reported increased food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Moreover, there was a significant difference in food insecurity status between essential and non-essential Hispanic/Latino workers (p < 0.001).
Conclusion The results underscore the prevalence of food insecurity due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to create comprehensive food policies that address the lack of availability of adequate food among Hispanic/Latino essential workers who already face pandemic-related challenges.

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(Contact: Luis Alzate-Duque; email: alzatelf@njms.rutgers.edu)

Colorectal Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. In this program, we use an ecological model to help Newark residents complete colorectal screening through fecal immunochemical testing (FIT). We provide education and motivational interviewing to address barriers and concerns about screening.

(Contact: Pamela Valera; email: pv181@sph.rutgers.edu; Javier Boyas; email: jfboyas@uga.edu)

It has been well established that mental health problems disproportionately burden a significant number of individuals who are incarcerated. The literature suggests that one way of offsetting the deleterious effects of prison life among inmates is to build and use available social support resources before incarceration and during community reintegration. Our studies have investigated different forms of support that could significantly improve mental health outcomes among formerly incarcerated men of color in New York City. To learn more about how to use social support in mitigating recidivism and reducing poor health, please read some of our findings and solutions:

Valera, P., & Boyas, J. (2019). Perceived social ties and mental health among formerly incarcerated men in New York City. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19832239

Valera. P., Bachman, L., Wilson, W., & Reid, A. (2017). “It’s hard to reenter when you’ve been locked out”: Keys to successful offender reintegration. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 56, 412-431.

Valera, P., Chang, Y., Hernández, D., & Cooper, J. (2015). Exploring kinship and social support in women with criminal justice backgrounds. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 54, 278-295.